Transesophageal echo showing a thrombus in the left atrial appendage of a patient with atrial fibrillation.
Transesophageal echo showing spontaneous contrast "smoke" in the left atrial appendage of a patient with atrial fibrillation.
The clinical trials below established the value of warfarin for reducing the rate of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.
1. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Design of a multicenter randomized trial for the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study. Stroke 1990;21: 538-545.
2. Boston Area Anticoagulation Trial for Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. The effect of low-dose warfarin on the risk of stroke in nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1505-1511.
3. Connolly SJ. Paupacis A. Gent M. et al. Canadian Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulation (CAFA) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;18:349-355.
4. Ezekowitz MD. Bridgers SL, James KE, Carliner NH, Colling CL, Gornick CC, et al., and SPINAF Investigators. Warfarin in the prevention of stroke associated with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1992;327:406-412.
5. Petersen P, Boysen G, Godtfredsen J, et al. Placebo- controlled, randomized trial of warfarin and asprin for prevention of thromboembolic complications in chronic atrial fibrillation: The Copenhagen AFASAK Study. Lancet 1989; I:175-179.
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