Fabry's Disease and Echocardiography

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Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jan 15;99(2):261-3. Epub 2006 Nov 27.
Significance of asymmetric basal posterior wall thinning in patients with cardiac Fabry's disease.
Kawano M, Takenaka T, Otsuji Y, Teraguchi H, Yoshifuku S, Yuasa T, Yu B, Miyata M, Hamasaki S, Minagoe S, Kanmura Y, Tei C.
Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Although classic Fabry's disease results in multiple causes of death, the cardiac variant of Fabry's disease affects only the cardiac system and results in initial symmetric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and later LV dysfunction, asymmetric basal posterior LV wall thinning, restrictive mitral flow, and functional mitral regurgitation with end-stage chronic heart failure (CHF), leading to death. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these findings predict prognoses in patients with cardiac Fabry's disease. In 13 consecutive men with cardiac Fabry's disease, LV wall thickness, the ejection fraction, mitral E-wave deceleration time, the LV Tei index, and functional mitral regurgitation were measured by echocardiography. Patients were followed for 5 to 96 months (mean 41 +/- 9). Eight patients developed New York Heart Association class III CHF, and 6 experienced cardiac death. A LV Tei index >0.60 and basal posterior LV wall thinning with a ratio of ventricular septal to posterior wall thickness >1.3 significantly preceded CHF and death (Tei index: 4.4 and 5.1 years; posterior wall thinning: 4.0 and 4.7 years), respectively (p <0.05). In conclusion, an increased LV Tei index and asymmetric basal posterior LV wall thinning are important echocardiographic findings that precede CHF and cardiac death in patients with cardiac Fabry's disease.

Aging Clin Exp Res. 2006 Aug;18(4):340-3.
Diagnosis of Anderson-Fabry's disease in over seventy-year-old women: description of two cases.
Buechner S, Luzzi C, Mannucci M, Massi D, Borsini W.
Departments of Neurological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134 Florence, Italy.

Anderson-Fabry's disease (AFD) is a rare inborn X-linked sphingolipid storage disorder. Deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-GAL-A) leads to progressive accumulation of glycosphingolipids within most visceral tissues and body fluids of affected patients, provoking a clinical syndrome that includes nervous system, renal, cardiac, ophthalmologic and cutaneous manifestations. Also heterozygous women, who had been considered as healthy carriers until recently, often demonstrate clinical signs of multi-organ involvement. In older women these manifestations are frequently attributed to other more common conditions of older age, and a genetic disorder is rarely hypothesized. We report the cases of two elderly women, who had been diagnosed with AFD at the ages of 70 and 74. Although it is a rare disease, AFD should be considered as a diagnostic hypothesis in women with a clinical history of cardiomyopathy and vascular encephalopathy, appearing at ages 40-50 without identification of major vascular risk factors.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Apr 18;47(8):1663-71. Epub 2006 Mar 29.
Fabry's disease cardiomyopathy: echocardiographic detection of endomyocardial glycosphingolipid compartmentalization.
Pieroni M, Chimenti C, De Cobelli F, Morgante E, Del Maschio A, Gaudio C, Russo MA, Frustaci A.
Ospedale Multimedica, Milan, Italy.

OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify echocardiographic hallmarks of Fabry's disease cardiomyopathy (FC). BACKGROUND: The recognition of FC from other forms of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by noninvasive imaging techniques is not yet available, and diagnosis, mostly in the absence of systemic manifestations, still relies on genetic and invasive studies. METHODS: Forty consecutive patients (mean age 39 +/- 15 years, 22 men and 18 women) with an established diagnosis of Fabry's disease were submitted to echocardiographic evaluation. Control population consisted of 40 consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 40 hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of LVH, and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects with no LVH. All HCM patients and FC with LVH and/or cardiac symptoms underwent cardiac catheterization with left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. RESULTS: Echocardiography showed in 83% of FC patients (95% of FC patients with LVH) a binary appearance of endocardial border absent in all HCM, hypertensive, and healthy subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of this echocardiographic feature in detecting Fabry patients in study population were 94% and 100%, respectively. Comparison of echocardiographic with histologic and ultrastructural findings showed the binary appearance to reflect an endomyocardial glycosphingolipids compartmentalization, consisting of thickened glycolipid-rich endocardium, free glycosphingolipid subendocardial storage, and an inner severely affected myocardial layer with a clear subendocardial-midwall layer gradient of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic binary appearance of left ventricular endocardial border, reflecting endomyocardial glycosphingolipids compartmentalization, represents a sensitive and specific diagnostic hallmark of Fabry's disease cardiomyopathy.

Angiology. 2006 Mar-Apr;57(2):241-5.
Relief of left ventricular outflow obstruction by cibenzoline in a patient with Fabry's disease--a case report.
Morimoto S, Sugiura A, Iwase M, Kubo N, Hiramitsu S, Uemura A, Ohtsuki M, Kato S, Kato Y, Hishida H.
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan. morimoto@fujita-hu.ac.jp

A 46-year-old man was admitted for further evaluation of exertional chest discomfort. One family member had experienced sudden death, and 2 others had died of heart failure, including 1 known to have had Fabry's disease. The patient was also diagnosed with Fabry's disease, based on reduced leukocyte alpha-galactosidase A activity, 2.0 nmol/mg protein/hour, as well as endomyocardial biopsy findings of marked sarcoplasmic vacuolization of cardiac muscle cells by light microscopy and lamellated "zebra bodies'' in the cytoplasm shown by electron microscopy. Echocardiography disclosed marked left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic anterior motion of the mitral leaflets. On cardiac catheterization, a left ventricular peak systolic outflow gradient of 50 mm Hg was noted; this decreased to 10 mm Hg following intravenous administration of 100 mg of cibenzoline. It is imperative to recognize the existence of cases with Fabry's disease associated with left ventricular outflow obstruction.

Heart Lung Circ. 2005;14 Suppl 2:S18-20. Epub 2005 Nov 9.
Cardiac involvement in Fabry's disease.
Nicholls K.
Department of Nephrology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Royal Parade, Parkville, Melbourne, Vic. 3050, Australia. Kathy.Nicholls@mh.org.au

Clinical Fabry's disease is due to any of multiple mutations in the X-linked alpha-galactosidase gene. These mutations are kindred-specific, often spontaneous, and produce varying degrees of functional enzyme deficiency resulting in deposits of specific glycosphingolipid (cerumide), especially in the vasculature, kidneys, heart and reticuloendothelial tissue. Disease frequency has probably been over-estimated at 1/40,000; so few centres have developed clinical experience of the disease, though the disease has been identified in all major racial groups.

Int J Cardiol. 2005 Mar 18;99(2):327-8.
Atrioventricular conduction disturbances in a young patient with Fabry's disease without other signs of cardiac involvement.
Kouris NT, Kontogianni DD, Pavlou MT, Babalis DK.

A 30 year-old male patient with a history of Fabry's disease, was referred to hospital with symptoms of dizziness, hypotension and weakness. Fabry's disease had been diagnosed 2 years before, based on angiokeratoma and hypohidrosis on physical examination and complete lack of alpha-galactosidase A on laboratory examination. The ECG on admission demonstrated sinus bradycardia, with a poor response to atropine administration. Echocardiograms on admission and 2 years before were normal, as well as Holter ambulatory ECG recording. Subsequent electrophysiological study demonstrated mild AV conduction disturbances at a site proximal to His, and the patient was simply advised to be regularly followed up. It can therefore be concluded that even young patients with Fabry's disease and normal echocardiograms might develop cardiac symptoms due to AV conduction abnormalities.

N Engl J Med. 2005 Jan 27;352(4):362-72.
Comment in: N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 16;352(24):2553; author reply 2553.
Glycogen storage diseases presenting as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Arad M, Maron BJ, Gorham JM, Johnson WH, Saul JP, Perez-Atayde AR, Spirito P, Wright GB, Kanter RJ, Seidman CE, Seidman JG.
Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, USA.

BACKGROUND: Unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy often prompts the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a sarcomere-protein gene disorder. Because mutations in the gene for AMP-activated protein kinase gamma2 (PRKAG2) cause an accumulation of cardiac glycogen and left ventricular hypertrophy that mimics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, we hypothesized that hypertrophic cardiomyopathy might also be clinically misdiagnosed in patients with other mutations in genes regulating glycogen metabolism. METHODS: Genetic analyses performed in 75 consecutive unrelated patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy detected 40 sarcomere-protein mutations. In the remaining 35 patients, PRKAG2, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), alpha-galactosidase (GLA), and acid alpha-1,4-glucosidase (GAA) genes were studied. RESULTS: Gene defects causing Fabry's disease (GLA) and Pompe's disease (GAA) were not found, but two LAMP2 and one PRKAG2 mutations were identified in probands with prominent hypertrophy and electrophysiological abnormalities. These results prompted the study of two additional, independent series of patients. Genetic analyses of 20 subjects with massive hypertrophy (left ventricular wall thickness, > or =30 mm) but without electrophysiological abnormalities revealed mutations in neither LAMP2 nor PRKAG2. Genetic analyses of 24 subjects with increased left ventricular wall thickness and electrocardiograms suggesting ventricular preexcitation revealed four LAMP2 and seven PRKAG2 mutations. Clinical features associated with defects in LAMP2 included male sex, severe hypertrophy, early onset (at 8 to 17 years of age), ventricular preexcitation, and asymptomatic elevations of two serum proteins. CONCLUSIONS: LAMP2 mutations typically cause multisystem glycogen-storage disease (Danon's disease) but can also present as a primary cardiomyopathy. The glycogen-storage cardiomyopathy produced by LAMP2 or PRKAG2 mutations resembles hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but is distinguished by electrophysiological abnormalities, particularly ventricular preexcitation. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Vnitr Lek. 2004 Nov;50(11):846-51.
Cardiac manifestation of Fabry's disease: current knowledge
Palecek T, Lubanda JC, Magage S, Karetová D, Bultas J, Linhart A.
II. interní klinika kardiologie a angiologie 1. lékarské fakulty UK a VFN, Praha.

Fabry's disease is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by the X-linked defect of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A leading to the intracellular accumulation of glycosphingolipids in various organs and tissues. Cardiac involvement is frequent and, in individuals with some residual enzyme activity, may be the sole manifestation of the disease. Hemizygous men are generally more seriously affected than heterozygous women. The dominant cardiac manifestations include myocardial hypertrophy of the left ventricle, which, in some patients, mimics hypertrophic cardiomypathy. Left ventricular systolic function is usually preserved, on the other hand mild to moderate diastolic dysfunction is regularly detected. Valvular abnormalities are frequently noted. However, hemodynamically significant lesions are rare. Conduction system involvement leads initially to the shortening of atrioventricular conduction, in later stages, with a progression of the disease, antrioventricular blocks and various forms of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias appear. Myocardial ischemia in Fabry disease has in most cases a functional origin due to endothelial dysfunction of coronary arteries and also due to the increase oxygen demand of hypertrophied myocardium. The results of so far performed studies with enzyme replacement therapy are promising in preventing further deterioration and even improving function of affected organs.

Z Kardiol. 2003 Nov;92(11):966-9.
Is left ventricular hypertrabeculation/ noncompaction a cardiac manifestation of Fabry's disease?
Stöllberger C, Finsterer J, Voigtländer T, Slany J.
Steingasse 31/18, 1030, Wien, Austria. claudia.stoellberger@chello.at

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some types of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are due to cardiac Fabry's disease. Since left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT) is regarded a subtype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, we looked for the alpha-galactosidase levels in blood leukocytes of LVHT patients. METHODS: Included were male patients in whom LVHT was diagnosed between June 1995 and September 2002. Echocardiographic criteria for LVHT were 1) >3 trabeculations protruding from the left ventricular wall, apically to the papillary muscles, visible in 1 image plane, and 2) intertrabecular spaces perfused from the ventricular cavity, as visualised on colour Doppler imaging. Trabeculations were defined as structures with the same echogenicity as the myocardium and moving synchronously with the ventricular contractions. Excluded were patients with known neuromuscular disorders. All patients were asked for systemic manifestations of Fabry's disease and blood tests were taken. The alpha-galactosidase-A activity was determined by means of an established fluorometric assay in blood leukocytes. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were invited and 26 accepted the invitation. The remaining patients had died (n=5), lived abroad (n=5) or were unwilling (n=5). Among the 26 patients, aged 28-78 years, who followed the invitation, one had renal failure due to renal shrinkage and one had suffered from a stroke 3 years previously. Leukocyte alpha-galactosidase levels ranged from 70 to 188 nM/mg Prot/h (normal: > or =42 nM/mg Prot/h). In none of the patients was the alpha-galactosidase level reduced. CONCLUSION: LVHT does not seem to be a manifestation of cardiac Fabry's disease. To definitively exclude Fabry's disease, however, endomyocardial biopsy is required.

Heart. 2003 Jan;89(1):e2.
Sisters with atypical Fabry's disease with complete atrioventricular block.
Doi Y, Toda G, Yano K.
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki
University, Nagasaki, Japan. mikan@net2.nagasaki-u.ac.jp

A 56 year old woman with severe right heart failure and complete atrioventricular block was referred to hospital for further examination. Symptoms and signs suggestive of Fabry's disease, such as corneal opacities, acroparaesthesias, hypohidrosis, and angiokeratoma, were not noted. Echocardiography showed a diffuse hypertrophic left ventricular wall and paradoxical movement of the interventricular septum. Cardiac catheterisation showed restrictive-type ventricular dysfunction. Left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy showed central vacuolar degeneration of myocytes with inclusion bodies, which had a concentric lamellar configuration under electron microscopy. This finding is specific for Fabry's disease. The patient's elder sister had experienced an almost identical clinical course and histological findings of myocardial cells on necropsy. In conclusion, two sisters were encountered displaying interesting cases of atypical Fabry's disease. Symptoms began with complete atrioventricular block and histological myocardial findings were specific for Fabry's disease.

South Med J. 2003 Feb;96(2):212-3.
First-degree atrioventricular block and restrictive physiology as cardiac manifestations of Fabry's disease.
Blum A, Ashkenazi H, Haromankov I, Khazim K, Sheiman J.
Department of Internal Medicine A, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel. navablum@hotmail.com

Fabry's disease is an X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid catabolism related to the defective activity of glycosphingolipid, mainly ceramide trihexoside, in the vascular smooth muscle, myocardium, cells of the sympathetic central nervous system, and epithelial cells of renal glomeruli. We describe a young man who had Fabry's disease and unusual electrocardiographic and echocardiographic patterns at admission for treatment of left leg cellulitis. Findings included a prolonged PR interval and a right bundle branch block pattern, no echocardiographic signs of septal or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and a restrictive physiologic pattern. This pattern of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic characteristics of Fabry's disease has not been reported previously and should be added to the other cardiac manifestations of Fabry's disease.

Clin Transplant. 2001 Jun;15(3):214-7.
Echocardiographic ultrasonic tissue characterization in a case of Fabry's disease following renal transplantation. Panichi V, Di Bello V, Taccola D, Giorgi D, Bertini A, Migliori M, Talini E, Giusti C.
Department of Internal Medicine of Pisa, Pharmacology Section, Department of Neuroscience, University of Pisa, Italy. v.panichi@int.med.unipi.it

We report a case of Fabry's disease where stabilization of progressive cardiac involvement was recorded in a 29-yr-old Caucasian man, to our knowledge, for the first time by ultrasonic tissue characterization echocardiography after 1 yr of successful renal transplantation. Three echocardiographic evaluations have been made: the first 3 months before, the second 6 months after, and the third 1 yr after kidney transplantation. The myocardial structural damage - evaluated by integrated backscatter index - shows a persistence of the impairment of intrinsic myocardial contractility at septum level, probably due to coexistent hypertensive status, which is able to induce per se alterations of myocardial textural parameters. On the other hand, the cyclic variation index at posterior free wall, which is less dependent on strictly hemodynamic factors than the septum, appears quite normal at the third observation. These data could reflect the improvement of the ultrastuctural myocardial findings in relation to renal transplantation, which could correct not only renal failure but also the enzymatic deficiency by replacement of alpha-galactosidase A through the transplanted kidney.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Aug 30;120(20):2395-6.
Cardiac manifestations in Fabry disease
Lappegård KT, Aass H.
Medisinsk avdeling Nordland Sentralsykehus 8092 Bodø. lappegard@nss.nl.no

BACKGROUND: Fabry's disease is an X-linked inborn error of metabolism. The patients lack or have very low activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. This results in deposition of sphingolipids in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells; thus the disease can affect nearly every organ in the body. Renal failure is the most common cause of death, but cardiac involvement is frequent. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We describe two brothers with Fabry's disease and provide a review of the literature in the field. RESULTS: Both patients had extensive electro- and echocardiographic findings. INTERPRETATION: Fabry's disease should be suspected in men with unexplained electro- and/or echocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy and a short PQ interval in the ECG.

Am Heart J. 2000 Jun;139(6):1101-8.
New insights in cardiac structural changes in patients with Fabry's disease.
Linhart A, Palecek T, Bultas J, Ferguson JJ, Hrudová J, Karetová D, Zeman J, Ledvinová J, Poupetová H, Elleder M, Aschermann M.
Second Department of Internal Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. alinh@lf1.cuni.cz

BACKGROUND: Fabry's disease is an X-linked recessive genetic deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase leading to the pathologic intracellular deposition of neutral glycosphingolipids. Although cardiac involvement is frequent, there is controversy regarding the character of the associated left ventricular (LV) changes and the severity of valvular involvement. METHODS: Clinical evaluation (disease severity scaling, laboratory tests, and echocardiography) was performed in 13 hemizygous men (mean age 39 +/- 10 years) and 17 heterozygous women (mean age 35 +/- 19 years). RESULTS: LV hypertrophy (LVH) was frequent in subjects older than 30 years, more often in men (61%) than in women (18%, P <.001). The degree of LVH was independently associated with age and the logarithm of alpha-galactosidase activity (r(2) = 0.70, P <.001). The predominant LV geometric patterns were concentric LVH and remodeling, both present in 11 subjects (36%). Three patients had an asymmetric septal hypertrophy mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In most subjects with LVH, the systolic function was normal and severe diastolic dysfunction (restrictive pattern) was not noted. Minor structural abnormalities of the mitral valve were found in 17 subjects (57%). The aortic valve was affected in 14 patients (47%). Valvular abnormalities were frequently accompanied by regurgitation of minor to mild degree. The presence of LVH or valvular changes was associated with increased disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographically detectable cardiac involvement is frequent with Fabry's disease, particularly in older subjects, and more pronounced in affected hemizygous men than in heterozygous women. LVH is frequently observed but usually not associated with significant systolic or restrictive diastolic dysfunction. Concentric LVH and remodeling appear to be the major manifestations of LV structural alteration. The frequently noted valvular abnormalities were not associated with a significant degree of regurgitation. Valvular and especially LV structural changes may serve as a useful marker of disease severity.

Cardiology. 2000;94(3):208-12.
Ventricular fibrillation refractory to automatic internal cardiac defibrillator in Fabry's disease.
Review of cardiovascular manifestations.Eckart RE, Kinney KG, Belnap CM, Le TD.
Department of Cardiology and Pathology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859-5000, USA.

Fabry's disease is a disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism leading to alpha-galactosidase deficiency with systemic sequelae. Clinical cardiac manifestations include dysrhythmias, structural abnormalities apparent on echocardiography, and histologic changes secondary to glycosphingolipid deposition. The introduction of automated internal cardiac defibrillators (AICD) has been shown to decrease the incidence of circulatory collapse in individuals with known terminal arrhythmias. We present a patient with Fabry's disease, who underwent coronary angiography without finding of obstructive disease. He returned after aborted sudden cardiac death necessitating the placement of an AICD. He again presented after an episode of ventricular fibrillation refractory to internal defibrillation necessitating advanced life support, and subsequently expired. We review the electrocardiographic, cardiovascular structural, and histologic manifestations of Fabry's disease.

Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1998 Jul-Aug;16(4):475-8.
Coexistence of Fabry's disease and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Rahman P, Gladman DD, Wither J, Silver MD.
University of Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Clinic, Centre for Prognosis Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases, Ontario, Canada.

This report describes a case of a female with systemic lupus erythematosus, who was subsequently diagnosed with Fabry's disease. Due to similarities in the organs involved by these two multisystem disorders, difficulties were encountered in establishing a prompt diagnosis of Fabry's disease. That and subsequent management of this patient are discussed. A literature review of the coexistence of the two disorders along with the potential pathogenic mechanisms explaining this association are explored.

Hautarzt. 1996 Oct;47(10):776-9.
Comment in: Hautarzt. 1997 Jul;48(7):505-6.
Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum universale (Fabry disease)

Frank J, Jansen-Genzel W, Lentner A, Wienert V.
Abteilung Dermatologische Phlebologie, Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule, Aachen.

Fabry's disease (Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum) is a rare X-chromosome linked recessive disorder belonging to the group of sphingolipoidoses. The basic defect involves the gene encoding alpha-galactosidase. Because this enzyme is responsible for decomposition of glycosphingolipids, its deficiency results in their accumulation in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. With time, generalized angiokeratomas, paresthesias, renal and cardiac insufficiency and cerebrovascular complications develop. We report a patient who in addition to the well-described findings also showed unique nail fold capillary changes not described so far. Analysis of serum concentration of alpha-galactosidase identified three female heterozygous carriers in the patient's family.

J Cardiol. 1988 Sep;18(3):705-18.
Four cases of Fabry's disease mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Tanaka H, Adachi K, Yamashita Y, Toshima H, Koga Y.
Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka.

Four patients with Fabry's disease diagnosed by right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy had cardiac manifestations simulating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Case 1: A 51-year-old woman, whose elder sister had congestive heart failure, was hospitalized for exertional dyspnea and cardiomegaly. Her electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a short PQ interval (0.10 sec) and left ventricular hypertrophy. Her echocardiogram (Echo) showed moderate symmetrical hypertrophy of the left ventricle (IVST/PWT = 18 mm/17 mm). Case 2: A 32-year-old woman, whose elder sister had an abnormal ECG, was hospitalized for the ECG abnormalities consisting of a short PQ interval (0.10 sec) and ST-T changes in the left precordial leads. The Echo revealed mild symmetrical hypertrophy of the left ventricle (IVST = 13 mm, PWT = 13 mm). Case 3: A 44-year-old man was hospitalized for his ECG suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy, and his Echo showed asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH; IVST = 22 mm). Case 4: A 51-year-old man was hospitalized for his ECG showing high voltage in the left precordial leads, and his Echo showed ASH (IVST = 20 mm). The cardiac histopathological findings of these cases included cytoplasmic vacuolization by light microscopy, and electron-dense deposits consisting of parallel or concentric lamellae with periodic spacing, suggesting Fabry's disease. The urinary glycolipids of Case 1 were increased biochemically; then the diagnosis of Fabry's disease was confirmed. Cardiac hypertrophy in Fabry's disease has many aspects, because the histopathological changes and clinical manifestations are determined by genetic factors. It was concluded that Fabry's disease may be concealed in some patients with the clinical diagnosis of HCM.

J Cardiol. 1988 Jun;18(2):589-98.
Echocardiographic findings in a case of Fabry's disease with aortic regurgitation and complete AV block, and in his family members
Iwase M, Yamauchi K, Maeda M, Aoki T, Yokota M, Hayashi H, Sotobata I.
First Department of Internal Medicine, Nagoya University.

A 46-year-old man with Fabry's disease having aortic regurgitation and complete atrioventricular (AV) block was presented. In spite of severe aortic regurgitation (Seller's grade 3/4), his two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram revealed increased thickness of the left ventricular wall with mild dilatation. The myocardial echo showed a fine granular sparkling texture suggesting phospholipid deposition in the myocardial tissue. The membranous portion of the interventricular septum was thickened, and the aortic valve was thickened and had imperfect coaptation. Endomyocardial biopsy of the right side of the interventricular septum revealed intramyocardial vacuolization by light microscopy. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of myelinoid lamellar inclusion. Electrophysiologic examination revealed an intra-Hissian AV block. A DDD pacemaker was implanted and the patient's symptoms were improved. Valvular replacement was not attempted due to the danger of suture failure. The patient's brother (41-year-old) also had increased thickness of his left ventricular wall on echocardiography, and a complete AV block by ECG, but no valvular abnormalities. His sister (45-year-old) had increased thickness of the left ventricular wall on echocardiography, and negative T waves by ECG, but she had no cardiac symptoms. The possibility of cardiac involvement in this heterozygous woman with Fabry's disease should also be considered. The patient's 38-year-old sister and all the children of all family members had normal left ventricular wall thicknesses and normal ECG. These findings may correspond to the age-related disease severity. The possibility of cardiac abnormalities should be considered in heterozygous women with Fabry's disease.

J Cardiol. 1988 Mar;18(1):135-44.
Myocardial involvement in female Fabry's disease: evaluation by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy
Tsuda T, Yokoyama A, Masani F, Kodera K, Yamamoto T, Watanabe K, Izumi T, Shibata A, Kimura M.
First Department of Internal Medicine, Niigata University School of Medicine.

Fabry's disease is characterized by an inherited X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid catabolism, and heterozygous women affected with this disease who show overt symptoms including cardiac manifestations have rarely been reported. To elucidate the features of myocardial involvement in female patients, noninvasive techniques including exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were performed. Three female patients, Cases 1-3, 26, 29 and 50 years of age, were documented low leucocytic alpha-galactosidase activities of less than 48% of normal (67.92-16.2 nmol/mg protein/h). They were examined using ECG, two-dimensional echocardiography (2-D Echo),Holter ECG, treadmill test and stress scintigraphy. On the ECG, negative T waves were shown in leads III and aVF in Cases 1 and 2. Left ventricular high voltage, giant negative T waves and short PR intervals were seen in Case 3. The 2-D Echo revealed neither valvular change nor left ventricular hypertrophy. On the Holter ECG, monofocal ventricular premature beats were occasionally observed in Cases 1 and 3. The treadmill test showed positive ST changes only in Case 2. On the exercise stress scintigraphy, uptake of thallium-201 was enhanced in the apex of the heart in Cases 2 and 3. Low uptake areas of thallium-201 were observed in Case 3. The ventricular angiogram revealed slight hypertrophy of the wall of the apical portion. In endocardial biopsies from the right ventricle, myelinoid lamellar inclusions were demonstrated in myocardial cells electron microscopically. Increased uptake of thallium-201 in the apex was noted in two of the three patients, but no apical thickening was noticed in any of the three cases by 2-D Echo. From the result of the biopsy of Case 3, the increased apical uptake of thallium-201 seems to reflect thickening caused by the deposition of glycosphingolipid. It was concluded that myocardial involvement in female Fabry's disease may occur early in the third decade and that the lesions could be detected with high sensitivity by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy.

Clin Genet. 1986 Apr;29(4):276-83.
Cardiovascular manifestations in Fabry's disease. A high incidence of mitral valve prolapse in hemizygotes and heterozygotes.
Sakuraba H, Yanagawa Y, Igarashi T, Suzuki Y, Suzuki T, Watanabe K, Ieki K, Shimoda K, Yamanaka T.

Cardiovascular manifestations of Fabry's disease were studied clinically in 10 hemizygous males and 13 heterozygous females. Mitral valve prolapse was found in 5 of 9 hemizygotes and in 5 of 13 heterozygotes examined by echocardiography. Ordinary medical examinations revealed cardiomyopathy in some asymptomatic females, and the diagnosis of the Fabry heterozygote was established by demonstration of specific inclusion bodies in the biopsied myocardium and low alpha-galactosidase activity in leukocytes. Renovascular hypertension of juvenile onset and thromboembolism were also found in 7 patients. It was concluded that Fabry's disease should always be considered in cases of mitral valve prolapse, cardiomyopathy, renovascular hypertension and thrombosis of unknown etiology, and that the Fabry patients should be followed carefully for the early detection of cardiovascular involvements in this disease.

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