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Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2009;37(2):101-6.
The influence of dipper and nondipper blood pressure patterns on left ventricular functions in hypertensive patients: a tissue Doppler study.
Tigen K, Karaahmet T, Fotbolcu H, Gürel E, Cevik C, Geçmen C, Bitigen A, Mutlu B, Basaran Y.
Department of Cardiology, Kartal Kosuyolu Heart and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of dipper and non-dipper blood pressure patterns on left ventricular diastolic filling parameters in hypertensive patients. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five hypertensive patients (37 women, 18 men; mean age 55+/-10 years) were evaluated with echocardiography and ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. All the patients received antihypertensive drug therapy for at least three months prior to the evaluations. Tissue Doppler-derived systolic and diastolic parameters were compared. RESULTS: Dipper and nondipper blood pressure patterns were found in 22 patients (40%) and 33 patients (60%), respectively. Both groups had similar left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters. Dipper patients had significantly lower values for left atrial diameter (p<0.0001), interventricular septum (p=0.001) and posterior wall (p=0.012) thickness, left ventricular mass (p=0.017) and mass index (p=0.021). Both groups had similar mitral E and A waves, E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time, isovolumetric relaxation time, and tissue Doppler-derived A' wave. Dipper patients had a significantly lower E/E' ratio (10.8+/-3.4 vs. 14.1+/-3.6; p=0.002) and significantly higher systolic (S') (p=0.05) and early diastolic (E') (p=0.027) tissue velocities. Based on the E/E' ratios being <15 or =/>15, the frequency of dipper hypertension was significantly higher in patients with E/E' <15 (48.8% vs. 9.1%; p=0.019). The frequency of dippers was also higher among patients having an E/E' ratio of <8, compared to those having an E/E' ratio of =/>8 to <15 (90% vs. 35.3%; p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Nondipper blood pressure pattern may be associated with increased left ventricular mass, impaired left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and higher left ventricular filling pressures.

Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2009 Apr;8(2):157-61.
Role of 2-dimensional Doppler echo-cardiography in screening portopulmonary hypertension in portal hypertension patients.
Hua R, Sun YW, Wu ZY, Cheng W, Xu Q, Cao H, Luo M.
Department of General Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200127, China.

BACKGROUND: Portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) is difficult to recognize in the early and middle stages because it is frequently asymptomatic. As right ventricular function is impaired in patients with moderate and severe PPH, any dramatic hemodynamic changes in liver transplantation or other procedures may result in death from pulmonary and cardiac events. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of PPH in patients with portal hypertension (PHT) mainly caused by hepatitis B virus, and evaluated the effect of 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiography (2D-ECHO) in screening for PPH. METHODS: One hundred and five PHT patients received transthoracic 2D-ECHO preoperatively, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP, normal range <30 mmHg) and pulmonary acceleration time (PAT, normal range >or=120 msec) were measured to screen for PPH (positive result: SPAP >or=30 mmHg and/or PAT <100 msec). Subsequently, pulmonary hemodynamic parameters were measured by right heart catheterization (RHC) for definitive diagnosis of PPH. The results of the two methods were compared to assess the screening effect of 2D-ECHO. RESULTS: The prevalence of PPH in this study was 3.8% (4/105). About 90% (95/105) of patients had a detectable tricuspid regurgitation by 2D-ECHO and the mean SPAP was 27.7+/-5.9 mmHg. Twenty-two of these 95 patients had an SPAP >30 mmHg. The mean PAT of all patients was 140+/-23 msec and 5 were <100 msec. Twenty-two patients were screened out by 2D-ECHO and 4 were diagnosed by RHC. A positive significant correlation (r=0.55, P<0.01) was found between SPAP measured by 2D-ECHO and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) measured by RHC, and a weak but significant negative correlation (r=-0.27, P=0.005) existed between PAT and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The sensitivity, specificity, agreement rate, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the screening test were 100%, 82%, 83%, 18% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PPH in this study is lower than in Western countries. As a screening test, 2D-ECHO has very high sensitivity and negative predictive value. A negative test result can directly be used to exclude PPH, while a positive result should be confirmed by RHC.

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