Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2001 Feb 9;126(6):129-33
Ultrasonography of the inferior vena cava (IVC) in the diagnosis and monitoring of therapy in patients with chronic congestive heart failure
Hollerbach S, Schultze K, Muscholl M, Scholmerich J.
Medizinische Universitatsklinik, Knappschaftskrankenhaus, Klinikum der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: This prospective clinical study investigated whether the relatively simple and cost-effective ultrasonography of the inferior vena cava (IVC) represents a valid clinical tool to assess the effectiveness of diuretic therapy in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS: Measurement of the resting and inspiratory diameter of the VCI repeatedly during diuretic therapy in 23 consecutive patients (11 women, 70 +/- 10 years) with CHF and comparing the results to the daily measured body weight and serum creatinine in these patients. Results were compared with the IVC diameter obtained in 33 healthy controls (16 women, 42 +/- 15 years). In addition, the IVC collapse index was calculated to assess inspiratory movements of the IVC in patients on day 1 and 10 of therapy. RESULTS: The IVC diameter at rest was 2.4 +/- 0.6 cm and decreased to 2.0 +/- 0.7 cm at inspiration, which was significantly greater than in healthy controls (1.4 +/- 0.4 cm at rest and 1.05 +/- 0.5 cm at inspiration; p = 0.008 and p = 0.01, respectively). The IVC diameter decreased continuously and significantly (p < 0.003) from day 1 to day 10 during diuretic therapy without a concomitant rise in serum creatinine. At beginning of therapy, the collapse-index of the IVC was significantly greater in patients than in controls. However, after 10 days of therapy this index reached similar values to those observed in controls. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonographic measurements of IVC diameter and inspiratory movements are a quantifiable and reliable approach to assess the hypervolemia associated with CHF. Normalization of inspiratory IVC collapse movement correlates with successful diuretic therapy and can be reliably used for bedside assessment and monitoring treatment in CHF patients.
Indian J Gastroenterol 2001 Jul-Aug;20(4):136-9
Surgical anatomy of retrohepatic inferior vena cava and hepatic veins: a quantitative assessment.
Sharma D, Deshmukh A, Raina VK.
Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Accurate knowledge of the surgical anatomy of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) and hepatic veins is necessary for hepatic surgery. METHODS: Lengths of different segments of retrohepatic IVC and their diameters, and prevalence of various types of ramification and lengths of different hepatic veins, were noted in 100 disease-free human livers during autopsy. RESULTS: The mean lengths of the IVC from entry into atrium to diaphragmatic hiatus, from the hiatus to the upper margin of right hepatic vein, between the upper margins of the right hepatic vein and the right suprarenal vein, from right suprarenal vein to the lowermost dorsal hepatic vein, and from the lower-most dorsal hepatic vein to the right renal vein were 29.1 mm, 8.6 mm, 40.6 mm, 28.6 mm and 33.7 mm, respectively. The mean diameter of IVC at the diaphragmatic level was 30.1 mm. The commonest ramification pattern of the hepatic veins was type I (82%) for the right hepatic vein, type II (63%) for the middle and left hepatic veins, and type II (55%) for the caudate veins. In 96% of cases the middle and left hepatic veins formed a common trunk. In a majority of cases, the diameters of the right and left hepatic veins were between 7 mm and 12 mm. No gender differences were found. CONCLUSION: This study provides an anatomical perspective for various hepatic surgical techniques.
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