Liver Ultrasound

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Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi. 2001 Sep;25(5):265-7
Feature analysis for the envelope of liver's M-mode ultrasound images
Zhou GH, Wang YY, Wang WQ, Sun Y, Chen Y.
Dept. of Elc. Engn., Fudan University.

The liver moves in response to impulses arising from the main blood vessels. The hardness of the liver may be reflected by this kind of movement. The M-mode ultrasound technique is used in this paper to detect the information of livers' motion. The motion envelope of the liver excited by the abdominal aorta is extracted using the correlation technique. Several feature parameters, such as the amplitude, the standard deviation and Fourier harmonics, are extracted from this envelope. The values of parameters were calculated from 19 normal livers and 11 patients' livers, from which the criterion was obtained to decide whether the liver was normal.

Radiology. 1991 Nov;181(2):443-8.
Segmental anatomy of the liver: a sonographic approach to the Couinaud nomenclature.
Lafortune M, Madore F, Patriquin H, Breton G.
Department of Radiology, Saint-Luc Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The authors developed a simplified description of the segmental anatomy of the liver on the basis of the Couinaud nomenclature. This approach was demonstrated with normal in vivo sonographic images and livers dissected in corresponding planes. The branches of the portal vein, which lead to the center of individual segments, are used as key landmarks in the determination of segmental location. The hepatic veins, ligaments, fissures, and gallbladder are used as external boundaries of the segments.

Cesk Radiol. 1990 Mar;44(2):73-84.
Ultrasound anatomy of the liver
Heger L, Elias P, Vitek J, Michl A, Spitzer D.
Radiologicka klinika FN Kunz.

The authors review the modern concept of liver anatomy, related to the needs of surgeons in segmental resections. Important anatomical structures are described participating in division of the liver into four basic segments. The ultrasound anatomy of portal system, hepatic veins, hepatic fissures and liver hilus are dealt with in detail. Criteria for perfect examination of the liver by ultrasound are defined and representability of key anatomical structure under optimal conditions is analyzed in a group of 100 patients. The only non-constantly represented structure was fissura interlobaris (44%). Hepatic veins proved to be the most variable structures (17%). The results show that segmental anatomy of the liver may be very well represented by ultrasound. The authors discuss the importance of perfect knowledge of anatomy for quality examination.

Radiology. 1976 May;119(2):415-23.
Gray scale ultrasound imaging. The anatomy and pathology of the liver.
Taylor KJ, Carpenter DA, Hill CR, McCready VR.
Gray scale ultrasound imaging circumvents some of the limitations of other diagnostic tools. The authors have extended this technique to the investigation of hepatobiliary disease. The details of their equipment are described and their results in relation to various parameters of the disease are discussed. A major feature of the gray scale technique is the enhanced signal-noise ratio, which allows low-level echoes to be displayed.

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