Arch Cardiol Mex. 2005 Apr-Jun;75(2):210-21.
Usefulness of real time 3D echocardiography in assessment of rheumatic mitral stenosis
Perez de Isla L, Benitez DR, Serra V, Cordeiro P, Zamorano JL.
Unidad de Imagen Cardiovascular, Instituto Cardiovascular, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Espana.
To date, the assessment of rheumatic mitral stenosis has been based on Doppler methods, which have a high dependence on the hemodinamic conditions and on the planimetry obtained from 2D echo images. Real Time 3D echocardiography has been implemented in the daily clinical practice. It provides high quality 3D images and the acquisition time is very short. In the present work, we try to show the "state of the art" of Real Time 3D echocardiography in the assessment of rheumatic mitral stenosis. These findings are based on the experience of our "Unidad de Imagen Cardiovascular" at the Hospital Clinico San Carlos de Madrid.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Mar 1;45(5):763-9.
Quantitation of mitral valve tenting in ischemic mitral regurgitation by transthoracic real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.
Watanabe N, Ogasawara Y, Yamaura Y, Kawamoto T, Toyota E, Akasaka T, Yoshida K.
Department of Cardiology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the geometric changes of the mitral leaflets and annulus, clarify the maximum tenting site of the leaflets, and quantify the valve tenting in ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. BACKGROUND: Although the understanding of the mechanisms of ischemic MR has advanced recently, the geometric changes of the mitral leaflets and annulus have been assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography in the clinical setting, despite the unique configuration of the leaflets and annulus. METHODS: Utilizing real-time 3D echocardiography, we obtained transthoracic volumetric images in 12 patients with ischemic MR presenting with global left ventricular dysfunction and in 10 controls. Original software was used to crop the 3D data into 18 radial planes, and we marked the mitral annulus and leaflets in each plane in mid-systole. The 3D images of the leaflets and annulus were reconstructed for the quantitative measurements. RESULTS: In ischemic MR, the annulus flattened with apparent tenting of the leaflets. Maximum and mean tenting length were longer and tenting volume was larger in ischemic MR than control subjects (maximum tenting length: 9.8 +/- 2.0 mm vs. 3.1 +/- 1.2 mm, p < 0.0001, mean tenting length: 3.7 +/- 0.9 mm vs. 0.7 +/- 0.5 mm, p < 0.0001, tenting volume: 4.09 +/- 1.22 ml vs. 0.45 +/- 0.29 ml, p < 0.0001). The maximum tenting site was located in anterior leaflet in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: We clearly demonstrated 3D geometric deformity of the mitral leaflets and annulus in ischemic MR using novel software for creating images by 3D echocardiography. This technique will be helpful in making a proper decision for the surgical strategy in each patient.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003 Aug;16(8):841-9.
Additional value of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for patients with mitral valve stenosis undergoing balloon valvuloplasty.
Langerveld J, Valocik G, Plokker HW, Ernst SM, Mannaerts HF, Kelder JC, Kamp O, Jaarsma W.
Department of Cardiology, St Antonius Hospital, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM Nieuwegein, The Netherlands. J.Langerveld@ision.nl
The objective of this study was to validate the additional value of 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for patients with mitral valve stenosis undergoing percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy (PTMV). Therefore, in a series of 21 patients with severe mitral valve stenosis selected for PTMV, 3D TEE was performed before and after PTMV. The mitral valve area was assessed by planimetry pre- and post-PTMV; the mitral valve volume was assessed and attention was paid to the amount of fusion of the commissures. These results were compared with findings by 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography using pressure half-time method for assessment of mitral valve area, and were analyzed for the prediction of successful outcome. Pre-PTMV the mitral valve area assessed by 3D TEE was 1.0 +/- 0.3 cm(2) vs 1.2 +/- 0.4 cm(2) assessed by 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (P =.03) and post-PTMV it was 1.8 +/- 0.5 cm(2) vs 1.9 +/- 0.6 cm(2) (not significant), respectively. The mitral valve volume could be assessed by 3D TEE (mean 2.4 +/- 2.5 cm(3)) and was inversely correlated to a successful PTMV procedure (P <.001). The 3D TEE method enabled a better description of the mitral valvular anatomy, especially post-PTMV. We conclude that 3D TEE will have additional value over 2-dimensional echocardiography in this group of patients, for selection of patients pre-PTMV, and for analyzing pathology of the mitral valve afterward.
J Heart Valve Dis. 2002 Mar;11(2):173-80.
Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of mitral valve morphology by intraoperative volume-rendered three-dimensional echocardiography.
De Castro S, Salandin V, Cartoni D, Valfre C, Salvador L, Magni G, Adorisio R, Papetti F, Beni S, Fedele F, Pandian NG.
Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) performed to evaluate mitral valve anatomy during valve repair has certain limitations and pitfalls. The study aim was to assess the feasibility, accuracy and incremental value of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE), coupled with 2DE in evaluating mitral valve structure, before and after repair and pericardial posterior annuloplasty. METHODS: The site and extent of mitral valve prolapse, systolic and diastolic changes of mitral annular area were evaluated using 2D and 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), both pre- and postoperatively in 34 patients before and after mitral valve repair and pericardial posterior annuloplasty. RESULTS: Concordance between 2DE and surgery in evaluating prolapsing mitral valve scallops was 76% for the anterior leaflet and 75% for the posterior leaflet; for 3DE and surgery, concordance was 87% and 93% respectively. There was a significant reduction in maximal and minimal annular area after surgery, with a statistically significant difference between systolic-diastolic changes. CONCLUSION: 3DE, coupled with 2DE, is feasible and accurate in delineating the extent and location of prolapsing scallops of the mitral valve. The combined approach is also valuable in planning mitral valve surgery and evaluating the mitral valve annulus in vivo.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2001 May;14(5):403-12.
Three-dimensional echocardiography: historical development and current applications.
Lange A, Palka P, Burstow DJ, Godman MJ.
Department of Cardiology, The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Brisbane, Australia. AlekLange@hotmail.com
Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography facilitates spatial recognition of intracardiac structures, potentially enhancing diagnostic confidence of conventional echocardiography. The accuracy of 3D images has been validated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, a detail 1.0 mm in dimension and 2 details separated by 1.0 mm can be identified from a volume-rendered 3D image. In vitro 3D volume measurements are underestimated by approximately 4.0 mL. In vivo, left ventricular volume measurements correlate highly with both cineventriculography (limits of agreement +/-18 mL for end diastole and +/-10 mL for end systole) and magnetic resonance imaging, including measurements for patients with functionally single ventricles. Studies on congenital heart lesions have shown good accuracy and good reproducibility of dynamic "surgical" reconstructions of septal defects, aortoseptal continuity, atrioventricular junction, and both left and right ventricular outflow tract morphology. Transthoracic 3D echocardiography was shown feasible in 81% to 96% of patients with congenital heart defects and provided additional information to that available from conventional echocardiography in 36% of patients, mainly in more detailed description of mitral valve morphology, aortoseptal continuity, and atrial septum. In patients with mitral valve insufficiency, 3D echocardiography was shown to be accurate in the quantification of the dynamic mechanism of mitral regurgitation and in the assessment of mitral commissures in patients with mitral stenosis. This includes not only valve tissue reconstruction but also color flow intracardiac jets. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the aortic valve were achieved in 77% of patients, with an accuracy of 90%. In conclusion, the role of 3D echocardiography, which continues to evolve, shows promise in the assessment of congenital and acquired heart disease.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Feb;37(2):641-8.
Mechanism of ischemic mitral regurgitation with segmental left ventricular dysfunction: three-dimensional echocardiographic studies in models of acute and chronic progressive regurgitation.
Otsuji Y, Handschumacher MD, Liel-Cohen N, Tanabe H, Jiang L, Schwammenthal E, Guerrero JL, Nicholls LA, Vlahakes GJ, Levine RA.
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to separate proposed mechanisms for segmental ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR), including left ventricular (LV) dysfunction versus geometric distortion by LV dilation, using models of acute and chronic segmental ischemic LV dysfunction evaluated by three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. BACKGROUND: Dysfunction and dilation-both mechanisms with practical therapeutic implications-are difficult to separate in patients. METHODS: In seven dogs with acute left circumflex (LCX) coronary ligation, LV expansion was initially restricted and then permitted to occur. In seven sheep with LCX branch ligation, LV expansion was also initially limited but became prominent with remodeling over eight weeks. Three-dimensional echo reconstruction quantified mitral apparatus geometry and MR volume. RESULTS: In the acute model, despite LV dysfunction with ejection fraction = 23 +/- 8%, MR was initially trace with limited LV dilation, but it became moderate with subsequent prominent dilation. In the chronic model, MR was also initially trace, but it became moderate over eight weeks as the LV dilated and changed shape. In both models, the only independent predictor of MR volume was increased tethering distance from the papillary muscles (PMs) to the anterior annulus, especially medial and posterior shift of the ischemic medial PM, measured by 3D reconstruction (r2 = 0.75 and 0.86, respectively). Mitral regurgitation volume did not correlate with LV ejection fraction or dP/dt. CONCLUSIONS: Segmental ischemic LV contractile dysfunction without dilation, even in the PM territory, fails to produce important MR. The development of MR relates strongly to changes in the 3D geometry of the mitral apparatus, with implications for approaches to restore a more favorable configuration.
Circulation. 2000 Jun 13;101(23):2756-63.
Design of a new surgical approach for ventricular remodeling to relieve ischemic mitral regurgitation: insights from 3-dimensional echocardiography.
Liel-Cohen N, Guerrero JL, Otsuji Y, Handschumacher MD, Rudski LG, Hunziker PR, Tanabe H, Scherrer-Crosbie M, Sullivan S, Levine RA.
Cardiac Ultrasound Laboratory and Cardiovascular Surgical Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
BACKGROUND: Mechanistic insights from 3D echocardiography (echo) can guide therapy. In particular, ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is difficult to repair, often persisting despite annular reduction. We hypothesized that (1) in a chronic infarct model of progressive MR, regurgitation parallels 3D changes in the geometry of mitral leaflet attachments, causing increased leaflet tethering and restricting closure; therefore, (2) MR can be reduced by restoring tethering geometry toward normal, using a new ventricular remodeling approach based on 3D echo findings. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 10 sheep by 3D echo just after circumflex marginal ligation and 8 weeks later. MR, at first absent, became moderate as the left ventricle (LV) dilated and the papillary muscles shifted posteriorly and mediolaterally, increasing the leaflet tethering distance from papillary muscle tips to the anterior mitral annulus (P<0.0001). To counteract these shifts, the LV was remodeled by plication of the infarct region to reduce myocardial bulging, without muscle excision or cardiopulmonary bypass. Immediately and up to 2 months after plication, MR was reduced to trace-to-mild as tethering distance was decreased (P<0.0001). LV ejection fraction, global LV end-systolic volume, and mitral annular area were relatively unchanged. By multiple regression, the only independent predictor of MR was tethering distance (r(2)=0.81). CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic MR in this model relates strongly to changes in 3D mitral leaflet attachment geometry. These insights from quantitative 3D echo allowed us to design an effective LV remodeling approach to reduce MR by relieving tethering.
J Heart Valve Dis. 2000 May;9(3):341-9.
Usefulness of three-dimensional echocardiography for the evaluation of mitral valve prolapse: an intraoperative study.
Chauvel C, Bogino E, Clerc P, Fernandez G, Vernhet JC, Becat A, Dehant P.
Clinique Saint-Augustin, Bordeaux, France.
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aim was to evaluate the feasibility of intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients referred for mitral valve prolapse (MVP) repair and to compare two-dimensional (2D) TEE and 3D TEE and surgical findings. METHODS: Forty-six patients (mean age 67 +/- 11 years) underwent 3D TEE intraoperatively. Measurements were made of the posterior part of mitral annulus circumference (PMAC), and the width of mitral valve surgical resection on the mitral annulus (WMVR). Using 3D TEE, MVP topography was described, and PMAC in diastole and the width of implantation of MVP on the mitral annulus (WMVP) in systole were measured. RESULTS: 3D TEE was successful in 42 patients (91%). 2D and 3DTEE correctly predicted MVP localization in 38 (90%) and 36 (86%) patients, respectively (p = NS). 3D TEE and surgical PMAC were 89 +/- 13 and 93 +/- 21 mm, respectively (p = 0.01, R = 0.42). WMVR and WMVP were 28 +/- 11 mm and 26 +/- 11 mm, respectively (p <0.0001, R = 0.82). WMVR/anatomic PMAC (0.29 +/- 0.11) and WMVP/3D echo PMAC (0.32 +/- 0.11) were correlated (p <0.0001, R= 0.69). CONCLUSION: Intraoperative 3D TEE evaluation of MVP is feasible. MVP width and its ratio to the mitral annulus were assessed, and found to correlate with surgical findings. These 3D data may be of value to the surgeon when performing mitral valve repair.
Am Heart J. 2000 Mar;139(3):378-87.
Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of annular shape changes in the normal and regurgitant mitral valve.
Kaplan SR, Bashein G, Sheehan FH, Legget ME, Munt B, Li XN, Sivarajan M, Bolson EL, Zeppa M, Arch MZ, Martin RW.
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-6422, USA.
OBJECTIVES: To compare mitral annular shape and motion throughout the cardiac cycle in patients with normal hearts versus those with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). BACKGROUND: The causes of mitral regurgitation without valvular disease are unclear, but the condition is associated with changes in annular shape and dynamics. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging provides a more comprehensive view of annular structure and allows accurate reconstructions at high spatial and temporal resolution. METHODS: Nine normal subjects and 8 patients with FMR undergoing surgery underwent rotationally scanned transesophageal echocardiography. At every video frame of 1 sinus beat, the mitral annulus was manually traced and reconstructed in 3D by Fourier series. Annular projected area, nonplanarity, eccentricity, perimeter length, and interpeak and intervalley spans were determined at 10 time points in systole and 10 points in diastole. RESULTS: The mitral annulus in patients with FMR had a larger area, perimeter, and interpeak span than in normal subjects (P <.001 for all). At mid-systole in normal annuli, area and perimeter reach a minimum, nonplanarity is greatest, and projected shape is least circular. These cyclic variations were not significant in patients with FMR. Annular area change closely paralleled perimeter change in all patients (mean r = 0.96 +/- 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: FMR is associated with annular dilation and reduced cyclic variation in annular shape and area. Normal mitral valve function may depend on normal annular 3D shape and dimensions as well as annular plasticity. These observations may have implications for design and selection of mitral annular prostheses.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 May;33(6):1646-54.
Three-dimensional color Doppler: a clinical study in patients with mitral regurgitation.
De Simone R, Glombitza G, Vahl CF, Albers J, Meinzer HP, Hagl S.
University of Heidelberg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of color Doppler signals in patients with mitral regurgitation. BACKGROUND: Two-dimensional (2D) color Doppler has limited value in visualizing and quantifying asymmetric mitral regurgitation. Clinical studies on 3D reconstruction of Doppler signals in original color coding have not yet been performed in patients. We have developed a new procedure for 3D reconstruction of color Doppler. METHODS: We studied 58 patients by transesophageal 3D echocardiography. The jet area was assessed by planimetry and the jet volumes by 3D Doppler. The regurgitant fractions, the volumes, and the angiographic degree of mitral regurgitation were assessed in 28 patients with central jets and compared with those of 30 patients with eccentric jets. RESULTS: In all patients, jet areas and jet volumes significantly correlated with the angiographic grading (r = 0.73 and r = 0.90), the regurgitant fraction (r = 0.68 and r = 0.80) and the regurgitant volume (r = 0.66 and r = 0.90). In patients with central jets, significant correlations were found between jet area and angiography (r = 0.86), regurgitant fraction (r = 0.64) and regurgitant volume (r = 0.78). No significant correlations were found between jet area and angiography (r = 0.53), regurgitant fraction (r = 0.52) and regurgitant volume (r = 0.53) in the group of patients with eccentric jets. In contrast, jet volumes significantly correlated with angiography (r = 0.90), regurgitant fraction (r = 0.75) and regurgitant volume (r = 0.88) in the group of patients with eccentric jets. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional Doppler revealed new images of the complex jet geometry. In addition, jet volumes, assessed by an automated voxel count, independent of manual planimetry or subjective estimation, showed that 3D Doppler is also capable of quantifying asymmetric jets.
Circulation. 1997 Sep 16;96(6):1999-2008.
Insights from three-dimensional echocardiography into the mechanism of functional mitral regurgitation: direct in vivo demonstration of altered leaflet tethering geometry.
Otsuji Y, Handschumacher MD, Schwammenthal E, Jiang L, Song JK, Guerrero JL, Vlahakes GJ, Levine RA.
Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography allow us to address uniquely 3D scientific questions, such as the mechanism of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and its relation to the 3D geometry of mitral leaflet attachments. Competing hypotheses include global LV dysfunction with inadequate leaflet closing force versus geometric distortion of the mitral apparatus by LV dilatation, which increases leaflet tethering and restricts closure. Because geometric changes generally accompany dysfunction, these possibilities have been difficult to separate. METHODS AND RESULTS: We created a model of global LV dysfunction by esmolol and phenylephrine infusion in six dogs. initially with LV expansion limited by increasing pericardial restraint and then with the pericardium opened. The mid-systolic 3D relations of the papillary muscle (PM) tips and mitral valve were reconstructed. Despite severe LV dysfunction (ejection fraction, 18+/-6%), only trace MR developed when pericardial restraint limited LV dilatation; with the pericardium opened, moderate MR accompanied LV dilatation (end-systolic volume, 44+/-5 mL versus 12+/-5 mL control, P<.001). Mitral regurgitant volume and orifice area did not correlate with LV ejection fraction and dP/dt (global function) but did correlate with changes in the tethering distance from the PMs to the anterior annulus derived from the 3D reconstructions, especially PM shifts in the posterior and mediolateral directions, as well as with annular area (P<.0005). By multiple regression, only changes in the PM-to-annulus distance independently predicted MR volume and orifice area (R2=.82 to .85, P=2x10(-7) to 6x10(-8)). CONCLUSIONS: LV dysfunction without dilatation fails to produce important MR. Functional MR relates strongly to changes in the 3D geometry of the mitral valve attachments at the PM and annular levels, with practical implications for approaches that would restore a more favorable configuration.
Int J Card Imaging. 1996 Dec;12(4):241-7.
Quantification of mitral valve stenosis by three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.
Kupferwasser I, Mohr-Kahaly S, Menzel T, Spiecker M, Dohmen G, Mayer E, Oelert H, Erbel R, Meyer J.
II Medical Clinic, University of Mainz, Germany.
The aim of this study was the evaluation of the diagnostic potentials of transesophageal 3D- echocardiography in the determination of mitral valve stenosis. 54 patients were investigated by transthoracic and multiplane transesophageal echocardiography. In 41 patients cardiac catheterization was performed. 3D- echocardiographic data acquisition was performed by automatic transducer rotation at 2 degree increments over a span of 180 degrees. The transesophageal probe was linked to an ultrasound unit and to a 3D- workstation capable of ECG- and respiration gated data acquisition, postprocessing and 2D/3D image reconstruction. The mitral valve was visualized in sequential cross-sectional planes out of the 3D data set. The spatial position of the planes was indicated in a reference image. In the cross-sectional plane with the narrowest part of the leaflets the orifice area was measured by planimetry. For topographic information a 3D view down from the top of the left atrium was reconstructed. Measurements were compared to conventional transthoracic planimetry, to Doppler-echocardiographic pressure half time and to invasive data. The mean difference to transthoracic planimetry, pressure half time and to invasive measurements were 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm2, 0.2 +/- 0.1 cm2 and 0.1 +/- 0.1 cm2, respectively. Remarkable differences between the 3D- echocardiographic and the 2D- or Doppler- echocardiographic methods were observed in patients with severe calcification or aortic regurgitation. In 22% of the patients the 3D data set was not of diagnostic quality. New diagnostic information from a 3D view of the mitral valve could be obtained in 69% of the patients. Thus, although image quality is limited, 3D- echocardiography provides new topographic information in mitral valve stenosis. It allows the use of a new quantitative method, by which image plane positioning errors and flow-dependent calculation is avoided.
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