TAPSE - Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion

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Eur J Heart Fail. 2007 Jun-Jul;9(6-7):610-6. Epub 2007 Apr 25.
Right ventricular dysfunction as an independent predictor of short- and long-term mortality in patients with heart failure.
Kjaergaard J, Akkan D, Iversen KK, Kober L, Torp-Pedersen C, Hassager C.
Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

BACKGROUND: The prognostic importance of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in heart failure (HF) has been suggested in patients with severe systolic heart failure. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) is a simple echocardiographic measure of RV ejection fraction, but may be affected by co-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIMS: To examine the prognostic information from TAPSE adjusted for the potential confounding effects of co-existing cardiovascular and COPD in a large series of patients admitted for new onset or worsening HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight hundred and seventeen patients screened for participation in a large clinical trial by trans-thoracic echocardiography, including measurement of TAPSE, were followed for a median of 4.1 years (maximum 5.5 years). Decreased TAPSE as well as presence of COPD were independently associated with adverse short- and long-term survival, hazard ratio was 0.74 (p=0.004) for every doubling of TAPSE; and 2.4 (p<0.0001) for the presence of COPD. CONCLUSION: Decreased RV systolic function as estimated by TAPSE is associated with increased mortality in patients admitted for HF, and is independent of other risk factors in HF including left ventricular function. The co-existence of COPD is also associated with an adverse prognosis independent of the RV systolic function.

Echocardiography. 2007 Feb;24(2):118-25.
Right heart function and scleroderma: insights from tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.
Lee CY, Chang SM, Hsiao SH, Tseng JC, Lin SK, Liu CP.
Cardiovascular Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of echocardiographic parameters as predictors of rehospitalization in scleroderma patients. METHODS: Echocardiographic studies were conducted in 38 patients with systolic scleroderma (SSc) to assess cardiopulmonary function. Forty-five age-matched volunteers without any sign of heart failure served as the control group. Transmitral flow pattern, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) were evaluated. All patients were subsequently followed for one year. RESULTS: Peak transmitral early-diastolic velocity (mitral E) and TAPSE measurements were significantly different between SSc and control patients (mitral E: 74.1 +/- 16.3 vs. 83.5 +/- 17.0 cm/s with P = 0.012; TAPSE: 2.4 +/- 0.43 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.39 cm with P < 0.0001). LVEF was similar, but RVEF was lower in the SSc group (LVEF: 61.7 +/- 9.7 vs. 61.7 +/- 5.8% with P = 0.962; RVEF: 49.6 +/- 6.8 vs. 39.2 +/- 6.7% with P < 0.0001). A strong correlation was found between TAPSE and RVEF. A TAPSE less than 1.96 cm indicted a RVEF less than 40% with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 78%. Contrary to expectation, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) did not correlate well with RV function (r = 0.261, r2= 0.068, P = 0.016). Finally, the frequency of rehospitalization was inversely correlated with RVEF and TAPSE in SSc patients. CONCLUSIONS: We can predict the rehospitalization rate of SSc patients by TAPSE and RVEF, suggesting the involvement of heart, skin, lung, and other organs in scleroderma patients.

Int J Cardiol. 2007 Jan 31;115(1):86-9. Epub 2006 Jun 5.
Feasibility and accuracy of a routine echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular function.
Tamborini G, Pepi M, Galli CA, Maltagliati A, Celeste F, Muratori M, Rezvanieh S, Veglia F.

The evaluation of right ventricular (RV) systolic function is important for its clinical and prognostic value but difficult to obtain due to RV complex anatomy. Aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a routine use of RV fractional shortening area (FSA), systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) of tricuspidal annular motion in a large series of cases (900 pts), to determine the values in normal subjects (150) and in patients (750) with different pathologies and to correlate these indexes to clinical and echo-Doppler variables. FSA (50.3+/-10% vs 54.6+/-9% p<0.01), TAPSE (20.2+/-5 vs 24.7+/-4 mm, p<0.01) and PSV (16.2+/-4 vs 20+/-4 cm/s, p<0.01) were lower in patients than in normals, correlated positively to left ventricular ejection fraction and negatively to the pulmonary pressure. The values of 17 mm for TAPSE, 12 cm/s for PSV and 37% for FSA identified patients with high specificity. The values in subgroups of pathological patients were evaluated and compared.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov 1;174(9):1034-41. Epub 2006 Aug 3.
Tricuspid annular displacement predicts survival in pulmonary hypertension.
Forfia PR, Fisher MR, Mathai SC, Housten-Harris T, Hemnes AR, Borlaug BA, Chamera E, Corretti MC, Champion HC, Abraham TP, Girgis RE, Hassoun PM.
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Asthma & Allergy Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

RATIONALE: Right ventricular (RV) function is an important determinant of prognosis in pulmonary hypertension. However, noninvasive assessment of the RV function is often limited by complex geometry and poor endocardial definition. OBJECTIVES: To test whether the degree of tricuspid annular displacement (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE]) is a useful echo-derived measure of RV function with prognostic significance in pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: We prospectively studied 63 consecutive patients with pulmonary hypertension who were referred for a clinically indicated right heart catheterization. Patients underwent right heart catheterization immediately followed by transthoracic echocardiogram and TAPSE measurement. RESULTS: In the overall cohort, a TAPSE of less than 1.8 cm was associated with greater RV systolic dysfunction (cardiac index, 1.9 vs. 2.7 L/min/m2; RV % area change, 24 vs. 33%), right heart remodeling (right atrial area index, 17.0 vs. 12.1 cm(2)/m), and RV-left ventricular (LV) disproportion (RV/LV diastolic area, 1.7 vs. 1.2; all p < 0.001), versus a TAPSE of 1.8 cm or greater. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; n = 47), survival estimates at 1 and 2 yr were 94 and 88%, respectively, in those with a TAPSE of 1.8 cm or greater versus 60 and 50%, respectively, in subjects with a TAPSE less than 1.8 cm. The unadjusted risk of death (hazard ratio) in patients with a TAPSE less than 1.8 versus 1.8 cm or greater was 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-24.9; p = 0.02) for the PAH cohort. For every 1-mm decrease in TAPSE, the unadjusted risk of death increased by 17% (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.30; p = 0.006), which persisted after adjusting for other echocardiographic and hemodynamic variables and baseline treatment status. CONCLUSIONS: TAPSE powerfully reflects RV function and prognosis in PAH.

Echocardiography. 2006 Oct;23(9):750-5.
Tricuspid annular systolic velocity: a useful measurement in determining right ventricular systolic function regardless of pulmonary artery pressures.
Saxena N, Rajagopalan N, Edelman K, Lopez-Candales A.
Cardiovascular Institute at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Assessment of right ventricular (RV) systolic function can be somewhat difficult, particularly in pulmonary hypertension (PH). RV fractional area change (FAC) and tricuspid valve annular motion (TAPSE) although useful in the assessment of RV performance, their use can be sometimes limited and tedious. Thus, a quicker but yet reliable alternative is needed. Accordingly, we compared peak tricuspid annulus systolic (TA Sa) velocities derived from Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) with both RVFAC and TAPSE to estimate RV function in 52 patients (53 +/- 16 years) with varying degrees of PH. In this group, mean was RVFAC 49 +/- 20, TAPSE was 2.3 +/- 0.7 cm, peak TA Sa velocity by DTI was 10.4 +/- 3.8 cm/s, left ventricular systolic function was 57 +/- 18%, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure was 47 +/- 28 mmHg. An excellent correlation was noted between TAPSE and RVFAC (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). Similar correlations were noted between peak TA Sa velocity and RVFAC (r = 0.84, P < 0.001) and between peak TA Sa velocity and TAPSE (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). A TA Sa >10.5 cm/s identified individuals with both a normal RV function and without significant PH. Therefore, we conclude that TA Sa velocity, an easily obtainable DTI measure, that has an excellent correlation with more time-consuming methods to assess RV systolic function regardless of the degree of PH should be routinely assessed during the initial evaluation and eventual follow-up of patients either at risk or with documented PH.

Am J Cardiol. 2006 Oct 1;98(7):973-7. Epub 2006 Aug 17.
Right ventricular systolic function is not the sole determinant of tricuspid annular motion.
Lopez-Candales A, Rajagopalan N, Saxena N, Gulyasy B, Edelman K, Bazaz R.
Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. lopezcandalesa@upmc.edu

Maximal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) correlates well with right ventricular (RV) function; however, little is known regarding the impact of left ventricular (LV) systolic function on TAPSE. Consequently, TAPSE was examined in 206 patients (105 men; mean age 56 +/- 17 years), and the data were analyzed with respect to RV (RV fractional area change 45 +/- 19%) and LV (56 +/- 17%) systolic function. The mean TAPSE for the population studied was 1.97 +/- 0.72 cm. Although a strong linear correlation was noted between RV fractional area change and TAPSE (r = 0.73, p <0.0001), relative differences with regard to TAPSE were also found. First, the greatest TAPSEwas noted only when RV and LV systolic function were normal (2.46 +/- 0.50 cm). Second, patients with reduced RV systolic function had the smallest TAPSE (1.28 +/- 0.48 cm, p <0.0001). Third, patients with normal RV function but reduced LV systolic function had TAPSE(1.91 +/- 0.54 cm, p <0.0001) that was intermediate between that of patients with normal RV and LV systolic function and those with abnormal RV systolic function. Fourth, patients with reduced biventricular function had the smallest TAPSE (1.16 +/- 0.41 cm, p <0.0001). In conclusion, TAPSE is not only determined by RV systolic function but also appears to depend on LV systolic function. TAPSE <2.0 cm is associated with some degree of either RV or LV dysfunction, whereas a value >2.0 cm suggests normal biventricular systolic function.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2006 Jul;19(7):902-10.
Severe tricuspid regurgitation shows significant impact in the relationship among peak systolic tricuspid annular velocity, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular ejection fraction.
Hsiao SH, Lin SK, Wang WC, Yang SH, Gin PL, Liu CP.
Cardiovascular Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. a841120@ms3.hinet.net

OBJECTIVES: Peak systolic mitral annular velocities correlate with left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) regardless of mitral regurgitation severity. Peak systolic tricuspid annular velocity (RV-Sm) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) are used to assess right ventricular (RV) EF (RVEF). We investigated whether tricuspid regurgitation (TR) affects the relationship among RV-Sm, TAPSE, and RVEF. METHODS: Patients (n = 625) underwent echocardiography and Doppler tissue studies. Left ventricular EF and RVEF were estimated by Simpson's rule. Because of confounding, we excluded patients with diseases that influence mitral annular motion or left ventricular function. We finally enrolled 225 patients: 125 with mild TR, 50 with moderate TR, and 50 with severe TR. Forty study patients (20 with mild TR, 10 with moderate TR, and 10 with severe TR) received radionuclide ventriculography. RESULTS: The RVEF estimated by Simpson's method correlated strongly to that estimated by the radionuclide method (r = 0.793, r2 = 0.629, P < .0001). With mild or moderate TR, RV-Sm correlated well to RVEF (mild TR group: r = 0.765, r2 = 0.59, P < .0001; moderate TR group: r = 0.756, r2 = 0.57, P < .0001). RV-Sm had no significant correlation to RVEF in patients with severe TR (r = 0.212, r2 = 0.05, P = .167). Over a range of TR severities, the relationship between TAPSE and RVEF showed a similar trend to that between RV-Sm and RVEF. CONCLUSION: Severe TR has a significant impact on the relationship between RV-Sm and RVEF and between TAPSE and RVEF. TAPSE and RV-Sm in patients with severe TR show poor correlation to RVEF. When applying Doppler tissue method or TAPSE to assess RV function, severe TR is a significantly confounding factor.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2006 Apr;19(4):441-9.
Right heart function in systemic lupus erythematosus: insights from myocardial Doppler tissue imaging.
Gin PL, Wang WC, Yang SH, Hsiao SH, Tseng JC.
Cardiovascular Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

The purpose of this study was to use Doppler tissue imaging to evaluate heart function and to investigate the correlation between Doppler imaging and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Standard echocardiography and 2-dimensional and color Doppler imaging were used to assess cardiac function in patients given the diagnosis of SLE (n = 40) and healthy control subjects (n = 45). Half of the patients with SLE also presented with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Significant differences in PASP and RV EF (RVEF) were found between the control and SLE groups. The peak systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus was significantly lower in patients with SLE than in the control group. The calculated myocardial performance index of the RV, septum, and left ventricular lateral wall were significantly higher in patients with SLE than in the control group. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation among PASP, RVEF, and systolic tricuspid annular velocity. There was a significant correlation between each of these 3 parameters and the 6-minute walk distance in patients with SLE. Patients with SLE and PH had a significantly shorter 6-minute walk distance than patients with SLE without PH. Furthermore, in patients with SLE and PH, RVEF and systolic tricuspid annular velocity were lower than in the control subjects and patients with SLE without PH. Patients with SLE and PH had a longer isovolumic relaxation time and a higher myocardial performance index of RV than those without PH. Finally, by simple linear regression analysis, we found a significant positive relation between RVEF and systolic tricuspid annular velocity, but a negative relationship between PASP and systolic tricuspid annular velocity. These findings demonstrate that in patients with SLE, systolic tricuspid annular velocity determined by echocardiography and Doppler imaging can be used to assess RV function and PASP. Furthermore, systolic tricuspid annular velocity reflects exercise tolerance in patients with SLE and the length of the isovolumic relaxation time represents the progression of PH.

Am J Cardiol. 2000 Apr 1;85(7):837-42.
Prognostic usefulness of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in patients with congestive heart failure secondary to idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.
Ghio S, Recusani F, Klersy C, Sebastiani R, Laudisa ML, Campana C, Gavazzi A, Tavazzi L.
Dipartimento di Cardiologia and Direzione Scientifica, IRCCS Policlinico S Matteo, Pavia, Italy. s.ghio@smatteo.pv.it

The prognostic value of ultrasound evaluation of right ventricular (RV) performance in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) is still a matter of investigation. We studied 140 consecutive patients with chronic CHF and a left ventricular ejection fraction <35%. All patients underwent a complete echocardiographic evaluation that systematically included the measurement of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). During a follow-up period of 24 +/- 14 months, 45 patients died and 7 underwent emergency heart transplantation. At the multivariate survival analysis (Cox regression model) backward stepwise selection identified a prognostic model with 2 parameters: New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV and TAPSE < or =14 mm (p <000). In a subgroup of 97 patients in sinus rhythm in whom mitral inflow Doppler variables could be measured, survival was further analyzed according to a model in which the significant parameters were included in the same order as usually used in routine clinical practice: clinical variables first, left ventricular function data second, mitral Doppler variables third, and indexes of right ventricular (RV) function last. TAPSE < or =14 mm added significant (p <0.03) prognostic information to NYHA class III or IV, left ventricular ejection fraction of <20%, and mitral deceleration time of < 125 ms. In conclusion, in patients with CHF, TAPSE adds significant prognostic information to the NYHA clinical classification, to the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function, and to mitral Doppler variables. Furthermore, the measurement of TAPSE is easy to obtain in all patients, irrespective of heart rate and rhythm.

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